Views:50 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2017-11-30 Origin:Site
Titanium industry chain can be divided into the following four parts:
1. Ilmenite, rutile and other primary mineral beneficiation, through physical methods to obtain higher grade concentrate
2. Through the re-processing of the concentrate purification system to obtain high-purity titanium dioxide to be used for the titanium dioxide industry.
3. Through the oxidation of titanium dioxide, reduction and other means to generate titanium tetrachloride, intermediate products are made into titanium sponge
4. Through the sponge titanium casting processing, preparation of crystal structure of dense titanium ingots, for the production of titanium and titanium alloy.
---- --- ---- -----
---- ---- ----
Titanium sponge refers to a spongy metal titanium with a purity of 98.5% to 99.7%.It is the main raw material in the production of titanium industry.Titanium sponge is a primary product in the whole production of titanium metal. It is necessary to obtain titanium ingots or industrial pure titanium by further melting, then it can be processed into corresponding titanium or titanium alloys.
The production of sponge titanium: currently, there are mainly magnesium thermal reduction (Kroll) method, sodium thermal reduction method (Hunter method) and molten salt electrolysis.The advantage of magnesia thermal reduction method is that the reducer magnesium can be recycled, and the single furnace has a large capacity.Relative, the product quality is better, the metal impurity content is low, but the single furnace production capacity is small, the sodium consumption is large.And the molten salt electrolysis method is in the semi-industrial test phase.
Titanium white powder and its application.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a very stable oxide with excellent optical and pigment properties, mainly used as white inorganic pigment.Its non-toxic, best best whiteness and brightness, opacity, was considered the performance of the best in the world at present a kind of white pigment, widely used in coatings, plastic, papermaking, printing ink, chemical fiber, rubber, cosmetics and other industries.
The production methods of titanium dioxide powder have two kinds of sulfuric acid and chlorination method: the production process of sulfuric acid is mature and the equipment is simple, but the disadvantage is that the production process is long and the environmental pollution is serious.Chlorination process of advanced technology, large capacity, high product quality, whiteness and narrow particle size distribution, at the same time, chlorine can be recycled, weakness is too strict with raw materials, raw materials must be 90% to 95% of natural or artificial rutile TiO2 content or titanium slag.
Production process of sulphuric acid titanium white powder:
Production process of titanium dioxide in chloride:
Titanium dioxide has three kinds of crystal morphology, such as rutile, ruiti type and titanium plate.The plate titanium type can not be used as a pigment. In the industry, it is used as the pigment to use the ruiti type and the rutile type titanium white powder.
Sharp titanium type titanium dioxide with high purity, uniform and fine particles, good optical performance, high refractive power, reducing power, covering power is strong, high and low oil absorption, water dispersion, mainly used in coating, printing ink, chemical fiber, rubber, glass, cosmetics, soap, plastic and paper making industries.Rutile type titanium pigment, besides has the advantages of titanium sharp type titanium dioxide also has better weatherability and hiding power, it is mainly used for advanced industrial paint, latex paint, plastic, light has high decolorization strength and fast requirements of rubber material, senior paper coating and waxed paper, etc.From the performance of pigment, the rutile type titanium white powder is superior to the titanium white powder, and the gold red stone type titanium white powder is also used in the treatment of surface coating.In 2010, China's rutile titanium dioxide accounted for 57% of titanium dioxide, well below 90% of the world.In the future, there is still a great space for improving the proportion of gold red stone titanium dioxide.
At present, titanium pigment industry is undergoing three adjustment: (1) the world titanium white production growth is relatively slow, and the asia-pacific region, especially the rapid growth of titanium white production in China, the world titanium dioxide industry to shift to the asia-pacific region, especially our country situation is very obvious;(2) with the downstream performance of titanium dioxide put forward higher request, become important means of titanium dioxide coated processing, all kinds of special titanium dioxide, titanium dioxide industry by tong supplies to develop in the direction of specialty items ascendant;(3) the titanium dioxide into sharp titanium type and rutile type two kinds, sharp titanium type titanium dioxide though because of its high cost performance is still occupy the market share, but rutile type titanium pigment with excellent performance is still a big trend of industry development in the future.In the structure of titanium dioxide products in China, the proportion of rutile titanium dioxide is increasing, which is about 57%, but still well below 90% of the world.The structure of titanium white powder in China is positively changing to the rutile type titanium white powder.To sum up, the future of titanium white powder industry in China is still promising.
Titanium and titanium alloy applications
Titanium is developed in the 1950 s a kind of important structure of the metal, titanium alloy with low density, high specific strength, good corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, non-toxic non-magnetic, welding can be adornment sex is strong, good biocompatibility, surface features, widely used in aviation, aerospace, chemical, petroleum, electric power, medical, construction, sporting goods and other fields.Many countries in the world have recognized the importance of titanium alloy materials and have developed and developed them.
Application of titanium and titanium alloys
The specific purpose
Aeronautics and astronautics
Jet engine parts, fuselage parts, rockets, satellites, missiles, etc.
Compressor and fan blades, plates, a few, guide blades, shafts, landing gear, flaps, baffles, engine room, bulkhead, wing beam, fuel tank, booster
Chemical, petrochemical and general industry
Also used in chlor-alkali and soda ash, plastics, petroleum chemical industry, metallurgy, salt industry, such as electrolytic tank, reactor, tower, concentrator, separator, heat exchangers, piping, electrodes, etc
Submarine pressure-resistant shell, propeller, water jet propulsion, seawater heat exchange system, naval pump (valve and pipe)
Artificial joints, artificial implants and orthodonts, pacemakers, cardiovascular stents, surgical instruments, etc
Golf head, tennis racket, badminton racket, billiard club, hiking stick, ski poles, ice knives, etc
Spectacle frames, watches, crutches, fishing rods, kitchenware, digital product shells, crafts, decorations, etc
Roofs of buildings, exterior walls, decorations, signs, railings, pipes, etc.
Automobile exhaust and noise cancels system, bearing spring, connecting rod and bolt, etc
Seawater desalination pipes, offshore oil drilling pumps, valve fittings, etc
In 2011, the proportion of consumption of commercial aviation in the world was 46% and the proportion of military titanium was 9% (mainly military aviation). The proportion of titanium in the whole aviation sector was over 50%.Industrial consumption of titanium is 43%, and the emerging market consumption of titanium is 2%.
There are obvious differences in demand structure of titanium products.In North America and the European Union, particularly in the United States, which has developed aerospace and military defense industries, more than 50% of the demand for titanium products comes from aerospace and military defense.In Japan, industrial titanium from industries such as chemicals dominates demand.Aerospace accounts for only 2% to 3% of Japan's titanium demand, according to the Japan association for titanium.Similar to the situation in Japan, the demand for titanium products in China is mostly in the chemical and energy sectors, and the aerospace sector accounts for only 10%.Although China has become one of the world's largest producer of titanium and consumer, but most of the production has been limited to the low level of titanium, used for bike rack, golf clubs, or use of anticorrosion pipe in chemical industry.However, in recent years, there has been a significant increase in the amount of titanium in aerospace in Asia, so the prospects for the titanium market are bright.
The aerospace industry USES titanium to concentrate in western countries, especially in the United States, where 60% of the titanium is applied to this field.Asian countries, Japan and China all have about 10% of the titanium in this field.But with the rapid development of aerospace in Asia in recent years, the consumption of titanium in aerospace will increase.From a global perspective, the aviation industry plays a decisive role in the titanium market. Historically, the great cycle of the titanium industry has been closely related to the cooling of the aviation industry.
In 2011, global titanium production reached 148000 tons, including commercial aviation use about 64000 tons of titanium, the future of global economic growth, the demand for air transport is still huge, is expected to demand about 30000 new aircraft over the next 20 years or so, at the same time, demand for new aircraft to titanium is higher than the old aircraft, commercial aircraft is expected to 20 years to the titanium demand will reach an average of 40 tons/frame;Accordingly, the next 20 years new global commercial aviation titanium demand of about 1.2 million tons, the compound annual growth rate of about 17%, the average annual 60000 tons of new titanium demand, civil aviation with titanium field presents the fast growth.New opportunities will also emerge in the field of military aviation;With global geopolitical tensions and rising military spending across the globe, new demand is expected in the field of military aviation.
The main purpose of titanium alloy in aircraft is as follows:
(1) Reduce the structure weight, improve the efficiency of the structure, advanced performance, such as supersonic aircraft lighter aircraft with low structure weight coefficient (i.e., the body weight/structure plane normal take-off weight), and the intensity of titanium alloy is close to the characteristics of strong steel but density is small, instead of structural steel and high temperature alloy, can greatly reduce the structure weight, also can save cost;In the case of the engine, statistics show that the cost of the aircraft engine can be reduced by about $220 to $440 per kilogram per kilogram.
(2) As to meet the requirements of the use of high temperature parts: titanium alloy has good heat resistance characteristics, such as commonly used Ti 6 al 4 v can long-term work under 350 ℃, so in the heat of the airplane parts (such as after the fuselage, etc.) can be replaced by high temperature performance cannot meet the requirements of aluminium alloy;TC11 can long-term work under 500 ℃, in compressor parts of the engine can replace high temperature alloy and stainless steel.
(3) Meets the requirement of match the composite material structure: to reduce the structure weight and meets the demand of invisibility, composite material is widely used in advanced aircraft, titanium alloy and composite material has good strength, stiffness matching, can achieve very good effect on weight loss.At the same time, due to the closer potential of the two, it is not easy to produce the electric couple corrosion, so the structural parts and fasteners of the corresponding parts should be made of titanium alloy.
(4) In line with the requirements of high corrosion resistance and long life: titanium alloy has the high fatigue life and excellent corrosion resistance, and can improve the corrosion resistance and service life of structure, meet the advanced aircraft, engine with high reliability and long life.
The development of military weapons towards lightweight, flexible and procurement constantly, in order to meet the fighter combat performance requirements, in addition to the use of advanced design technology, also must use good performance of materials and advanced technology manufacturing techniques.The application of titanium alloy and advanced titanium alloy is one of the important measures.Since the 1960 s, foreign military aircraft titanium volume increased year by year, the current European and American design dosage of various kinds of advanced military fighters and bombers titanium alloy has stabilized at more than 20%, and new models of using.
The advantages of the use of titanium include: reducing weight and reducing fuel consumption;Improve the power transmission effect and reduce the noise;Reduce vibration and load of components;Improve vehicle durability and environmental protection.
The health care industry
Titanium has a wide range of applications in the medical field.Titanium is close to human bone and has good biocompatibility and non-toxic side effects on human tissues.Human implant is a special functional material closely related to human life and health.Compared with other metal materials, the advantages of titanium and titanium alloys are as follows: 1.2. Low elastic modulus;3 no magnetism;4 non-toxic;5. Corrosion resistance;High strength and toughness.Titanium alloys in surgical implants are growing at a rate of 5% to 7% a year.Using titanium and titanium alloy manufacture of femoral head, hip, humerus, skull, knee, elbow, shoulder joint, joint, jaw and heart valves, kidney distinguishes the membrane, blood vessel expander, plywood, prosthesis, fastening screws and other hundreds of transplanted into the body of the metal, has obtained the good effect, gave a high evaluation by the medical profession.
The chemical industry
Titanium has excellent corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and process properties. It is widely used in many sectors of the national economy.Especially in chemical production, titanium is replaced by stainless steel, nickel-base alloy and other rare metals as corrosion resistant materials.To increase production, improve product quality and prolong the service life of equipment, reduce the consumption, reducing energy consumption, lower costs, prevent pollution, improve working conditions and improve labor productivity and so on has the very vital significance.
Titanium has become one of the main corrosion resistant materials in chemical equipment and has established his corrosion resistance in chemical equipment.As the ideal material in chemical equipment, titanium is attracting more and more attention from engineers.
After years of promotion, titanium and titanium alloys as an excellent corrosion resistant structure material have been widely used..At present, the application of titanium equipment has from the initial soda ash and caustic soda industry expands to chlorate, ammonium chloride, urea, organic synthesis, dyes, inorganic salt, pesticide, synthetic fiber, fertilizer, and fine chemical industries, types of equipment has expanded from small, simplification to large and diverse.
The results showed that the titanium heat exchanger accounted for 57%, titanium anode 20%, titanium container 16% and other 7%.In chemical industry, it is mainly used for "two bases", and the maximum amount of titanium heat exchanger in chemical equipment.
In recent years, the production technology of titanium increase rapidly in our country, the aerospace with titanium, the military, titanium car with titanium growth is very rapid, especially the aerospace field, has a tendency with titanium instead of chmical.In general, titanium technology in chemical industry is small, and the product value is low, and the proportion of titanium in chemical industry will inevitably decrease gradually.
With the development of science and technology,the depletion of land resources, human development and utilization of the sea have already joined the agenda.Titanium has excellent corrosion resistance to seawater, which is used in seawater desalination, ship, ocean thermal development and submarine resources exploitation.
In the early 1960s, China began to use titanium and titanium alloy in research ship and ocean engineering and application on the equipment and do a lot of work, has basically formed the more brand, different performance, variety complete specifications of Marine titanium alloy system.Because of titanium and titanium alloy has its own features, to make it on the ship, and the application of Marine engineering equipment has unique advantages, and therefore is widely used in nuclear submarines, DSV, atomic icebreaker, hydrofoil, hovercraft, minesweeper, propeller and sea water pipe, condenser, heat exchangers, etc.
In recent years, the application of titanium in human's daily life has been expanding, and the development is very fast, and the application of technology is more mature and perfect.The United States and Japan are ahead in the use of titanium in everyday life applications.